You are here


Grounded in a portfolio of in-licensed technologies from the University of Missouri and Clemson University, Organovo’s bioprinting technology has fostered the development of a wide variety of applications. The following selected publications highlight the capabilities of the bioprinting platform:


Bioprinted three dimensional human liver contructs provide a model for interrogating liver biology - Poster, Liver

Presented at the American Society of Biology, New Orleans, LA, December 2013.

Three-dimensional (3D) bone tissues derived from stem cells as a novel model for mineralization - Poster, Bone

Presented at the Stem Cell Meeting on the Mesa, La Jolla, CA, October 2014.

Development of 3D bioprinted human breast cancer for in vitro screening of therapeutics targeted against cancer progression - Poster, Breast Cancer

Presented at the American Society of Biology, New Orleans, LA, December 2013.

A novel in vitro three-dimensional bioprinted liver tissue system for drug development - Poster, Liver

Presented at the American Society of Experimental Biology, Boston, MA, April 2013.


The Importance of Multicellularity in Liver Homeostasis and Injury - White Paper, General - Liver Example

Functional Stability of exVive3D™ Liver, Bioprinted Human Tissues - White Paper, Liver

Will Advances in Preclinical In Vitro Models Lower the Cost of Drug Development?- White Paper, Bioprinted Human Tissues for Drug Development


3D Cell Bioprinting for Regenerative Medicine Research and Therapies

Chirag Khatiwala, Richard Law, Benjamin Shepherd, Scott Dorfman and Marie Csete
Gene Therapy and Regulation. Vol. 7, No. 1, 1–19 (2012).

Toward engineering functional organ modules by additive manufacturing

Francoise Marga, Karoly Jakab, Chirag Khatiwala, Benjamin Shepherd, Scott Dorfman, Bradley Hubbard, Stephen Colbert and Gabor Forgacs
Biofabrication. 4 022001 (12pp) (2012).

Tissue engineering by self-assembly and bio-printing of living cells

Karoly Jakab, Cyrille Norotte, Francoise Marga, Keith Murphy, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic and Gabor Forgacs

Biofabrication. 2, 1–14 (2010).

Scaffold-free vascular tissue engineering using bioprinting

Cyrille Norotte, Francoise S. Marga, Laura E. Niklason, Gabor Forgacs
Biomaterials. 30, 5910–5917 (2009).

Tissue engineering by self-assembly of cells printed into topologically defined structures

Karoly Jakab, Cyrille Norotte, Brook Damon, Francoise Marga, Adrian Neagu, Cynthia L. Besch-Williford, Anatoly Kachurin, Kenneth H. Church, Hyoungshin Park, Vladimir Mironov, Roger Markwald, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic and Gabor Forgacs
Tissue Engineering. 14, 413-421 (2008).

Bioprinting living structures

Mironov, V., Prestwich, G. and Forgacs, G.
J. Mat. Chem. 17, 2054–2060 (2007).

Before programs: The physical origination of multicellular forms

Stuart A. Newman, Gabor Forgacs and Gerd B. Müller
Int. J. Dev. Biol. 50, 289-299 (2006).

Three-dimensional tissue constructs built by bioprinting

K. Jakab, B. Damon, A. Neagu, A. Kachurin and G. Forgacs
Biorheology. 43, 509-513 (2006).

Role of physical mechanisms in biological self organization

A. Neagu, K. Jakab, R. Jamison and G. Forgacs
Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 178104 (2005).

Organ printing: fiction or science

K. Jakab, A. Neagu and G. Forgacs
Biorheology. 41, 371-375 (2004).

Engineering biological structures of prescribed shape using self-assembling multicellular systems

K. Jakab, A. Neagu, V. Mironov, R.R. Markwald and G. Forgacs
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 101, 2864-2869 (2004).

CompuCell, a multi-model framework for simulation of morphogenesis

J.A Izaguirre, R. Chaturvedi, C. Huang, T. Cickovski, P. Virtue, G. Thomas, G. Forgacs, M. Alber, G. Hentschel, S.A. Newman, and J.A. Glazier
Bioinformatics. 20, 1129-1137 (2004).

Biological implications of tissue viscoelasticity

G. Forgacs and R. Foty
In Function and regulation of cellular systems: experiments and models. Eds. A. Deutsch, M. Falcke, J. Howard and W. Zimmermann. Birkhauser, Basel. 269-277 (2004).

Organ printing: self-assembling cell aggregates as a "bioink"

V. Mironov, R.R. Markwald and G. Forgacs
Science and Medicine. 9, 69-71 (2003).

Mechanotransduction through the cytoskeleton

Y. Shafrir and G. Forgacs
American Journal of Physiology. 282, 479-486 (2002).

Fusion of cell aggregates: a mathematical model

A. Neagu and G. Forgacs
Biomedical Engineering: Recent Developments. J. Vossoughi (Editor). 241-242 (2002).

NovoGenT Bioprinting: Printing 3D Cellular Aggregates - Poster

Presented at the Annual Meeting of the TERMIS-NA, Orlando, FL, December 2010.

Scaffold Free NovoGenT Bioprinting Using Various Hydrogels - Poster

Presented at the Annual Meeting of the TERMIS-NA, Orlando, FL, December 2010.

Bioprinting by Continuous Deposition - Poster

Presented at the Annual Meeting of the TERMIS-NA, Houston, TX, December 2011.


Fully Biological Multi-Layered Vascular Grafts Generated with the NovoGen MMXT Bioprinter

Presented at the Annual Meeting of the TERMIS-NA, Orlando, FL, December 2010.